Climate Change Performance Index
Prelims Perspective: who develops and what is India’s stand.
Mains Perspective: How various countries are performing in Climate Action
Who develops the report:
Developed by NewClimate Institute, Germanwatch and Climate Action Network, the index ties in with the global Climate Change Performance Index by Germanwatch, a rating of the 58 largest emitters of GHG emissions globally that has been published annually since 2006.
About the report:
Published annually since 2005, the Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) is an independent monitoring tool for tracking countries’ climate protection performance. It aims to enhance transparency in international climate politics and enables comparison of climate protection efforts and progress made by individual countries.
The implementation phase of the Paris Agreement enters a crucial phase in 2020, where countries are due to submit their updated Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs).
CCPI 2020 key findings:
- Climate Change Performance Index 2020: Decreasing emissions in 31 out of 57 high emitting countries – global coal consumption falling. But more ambition and accelerated action needed.
- USA for the first time replaces Saudi Arabia as worst performing country
- Sweden continues to lead, Denmark climbs up significantly in the ranking
- only two G20 countries, the UK (7th) and India (9th), are ranked in the “high” category, eight G20 countries are remaining in the worst category of the index (“very low”). Australia (56th out of 61), Saudi Arabia and above all the USA perform particularly poor – the USA is the worst performer for the first time.
About India’s ranking:
India for the first time ranks among the top ten in the Climate Change Performance Index, CCPI, which goes further to prove that all efforts and activities being currently undertaken by the government are setting a tone of vast improvements. Government aims to increase the share of non-fossil fuels to 175 GigaWatt by 2022 and further take it to 450 GW.
Indian State of Forest Report
Prelims Perspective: Indian State of Forest Report Key Findings
Mains perspective: How the report is calculated. Is India is on its way of achieving the Environmental goals
About the report:
The Union Minister for Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Shri Prakash Javadekar released the biennial “India State of Forest Report (ISFR)”, in New Delhi.
The report is published by the Forest Survey of India (FSI) which has been mandated to assess the forest and tree resources of the country including wall-to-wall forest cover mapping in a biennial cycle. Starting 1987, 16 assessment have been completed so far. ISFR 2019 is the 16th report in the series.
In tune with the Government of India’s vision of Digital India, FSI’s assessment is largely based on digital data whether it is satellite data, vector boundaries of districts or data processing of field measurements and the data is based on interpretation of LISS-III data from Indian Remote Sensing satellite data (Resourcesat-II) with a spatial resolution.
Key Findings of the report:
The total forest and tree cover of the country is 80.73 million hectare which is 24.56 percent of the geographical area of the country.
Compared to the assessment of 2017, there is an increase of 5,188 sq. km in the total forest and tree cover of the country. “Out of this, the increase in the forest cover has been observed as 3,976 sq km and that in tree cover is 1,212 sq. km.
Range increase in forest cover has been observed in open forest followed by very dense forest and moderately dense forest and the top three states showing an increase in forest cover are Karnataka (1,025 sq. km) followed by Andhra Pradesh (990 sq km) and Kerala (823 sq km).
Area-wise Madhya Pradesh has the largest forest cover in the country followed by Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Maharashtra. In terms of forest cover as a percentage of total geographical area, the top five States are Mizoram (85.41%), Arunachal Pradesh (79.63%), Meghalaya (76.33%), Manipur (75.46%) and Nagaland (75.31%).
The Mangrove ecosystems are unique & rich
in biodiversity and they provide numerous ecological services. Mangrove cover
has been separately reported in the ISFR 2019 and the total mangrove cover in
the country is 4,975 sq km. An increase of 54 sq Km in mangrove cover has been
observed as compared to the previous assessment of 2017. Top three states showing mangrove cover increase are Gujarat (37 sq
km) followed by Maharashtra (16 sq km) and Odisha (8 sq km).
There is an increase of 0.32 million hectare in bamboo bearing area as compared to the last assessment of ISFR 2017.
NITI Aayog Releases SDG India Index
Prelims Perspective: SDG India Index
Mains Perspective: Sustainable Development Goals and India’s position.
NITI Aayog has the twin mandate to oversee the implementation of SDGs in the country and promote competitive and cooperative federalism among States and UTs.
About the SDG Index:
NITI Aayog released the second edition of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) India Index, which comprehensively documents the progress made by India’s States and Union Territories towards achieving the 2030 SDG targets.
The SDG India Index—which has been developed in collaboration with the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI), United Nations in India, and Global Green Growth Institute—was launched by NITI Aayog.
The SDG India Index 2.0 and the dashboard enables India to both track and encourage accelerated progress to meet the SDGs across all its States and Union Territories,’.
India’s composite score has improved from 57 in 2018 to 60 in 2019.
The maximum gains been made in Goals 6 (clean water and sanitation), 9 (industry, innovation, and infrastructure) and 7 (affordable and clean energy).
Indian States Performance:
All three states that were in the ‘Aspirant’ category (with score/s in the range of 0–49)—Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Assam—have graduated to the ‘Performer’ category (50–64).
Five states—Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Goa, and Sikkim—moved up from the ‘Performer’ category to the ‘Front Runner’ category (65–99).
Kerala achieved the first rank in the composite SDG Index with a score of 70, followed by Himachal Pradesh at 69. Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, and Tamil Nadu ranked at the third position with a score of 67. The biggest improvers since 2018 are UP (which has moved from the 29th position to the 23rd), Orissa (23rd to 15th), and Sikkim (15th to 7th).
While Bihar has improved its score from 48 in 2018 to 50 in 2019, it still has a long way to go in achieving the targets.
If a State/UT achieves a score of 100, it signifies it has achieved the 2030 national targets. The higher the score of a State/UT, the closer it is towards achieving the targets.
RBI launches mobile app for visually challenged
Prelims Perspective: Name of the APP
The Reserve Bank of India, RBI has launched a mobile app, MANI, Mobile Aided Note Identifier, to help visually challenged people to identify denomination of currency notes.
The app, which is available on both Android and iOS operating systems, was launched by RBI Governor Shaktikanta Das in Mumbai.
Visually challenged can identify the denomination of a note by using the application, which can also work offline once it is installed. Through the downloaded app, users can scan the notes using the camera. The audio output will give the result in Hindi and English.
RBI buys Rs 10,000 cr worth long-term govt securities
Prelims Perspective: What are Open Market Operations
Mains Perspective: Role played by RBI and Condition of the Economy
The RBI had announced to purchase and sell simultaneously government securities under Open Market Operations (OMO) for 10,000 crore rupees each.
In the second special open market operation (OMO), the Reserve Bank of India on Monday day bought 10,000 crore rupees of long-term government securities and sold 8,501 crore rupees of three short-term bonds.
What are Open Market Operations:
Open market operations is the sale and purchase of government securities and treasury bills by RBI or the central bank of the country.
The objective of OMO is to regulate the money supply in the economy.
Limitations of Open Market Operations
Lack of well-developed securities market
Contradictions between bank rate and open market operation
Difficulties in execution
Precautions for stabilizing the government securities market
Assumption of a constant velocity
Agriculture exports: How it has the potential to transform Indian farm sector
Reasons for reduction in exports:
Reduction in rural demand and liquidity crunch (especially post the collapse of IL&FS) to the overall slowdown in the economy.
According to NITI Aayog, a mere 5% increase in farm output can lead to price crashes in excess of 30%. It is clear, therefore,there is more constrained on the demand side than on the production side.
There are two sources of creating demand for agri commodities — domestic and global.
It is important to focus on the export value chain.
India is world’s second largest farm producer, but the country doesn’t figure in the ranks of the top 10 exporters and has a merely 2.2% share of the $1.6 trillion global agri trade.
In the sector of exports, there are several key issues that affect the various stakeholders concerned. The most crucial are farmers, who cultivate fractured landholdings and are often not updated on the global demand trends, whether it pertains to the varieties to grow or quality and safety standards to be maintained.
when farmers are investing in post-harvest processing, cold chain or branding requires capital, which isn’t tenable for a small farmer. Thus, there is an imperative to bring scale to agricultural operation.
Example for successful model:
Mahindra and Mahindra organisation found some success in export of grapes. In the last 15 years, they have been able to achieve the export of over 9,000 tonnes annually to global consumers across Europe, Asia and Canada. This has been on the back of promoting export-oriented production of grapes, interventions taken to increase yield and reduce the use of pesticides.
‘Public-Private-Farmer Group Partnership’ model could be the way ahead for pushing agri exports from India. This model can receive a boost through establishing crop-specific councils with representation from the Agricultural & Processed Food Products Export Development Authority.
Need to adopt the new model of growth.