April 27th Current Affairs
- April 27, 2021
- Posted by: admin
- Category: Culture Current Affairs Daily News Defense & Security Disaster Management Economy Education Environment & Ecology Ethics Geography Governance Health History International Relation Persons in News Polity Science & Technology Social Issues Sports Uncategorized UPSC Notification Videos
1. Project DANTAK
Project DANTAK completes 60 years in Bhutan.
- Project DANTAK was established on April 24, 1961 as a result of the visionary leadership of His Majesty the Third King and then Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Identifying the utmost importance of connectivity in spurring the socio-economic development and growth of Bhutan.
- DANTAK was tasked to construct the pioneering motorable roads in the Kingdom.
- DANTAK completed the road connecting Samdrup Jongkhar to Trashigang in 1968.
- In the same year, Thimphu was connected to Phuentsholing by DANTAK. Many Bhutanese had also volunteered to work with DANTAK.
- Over the years, DANTAK has met the myriad infrastructure requirements in Bhutan in accordance with the vision of Their Majesties and the aspirations of the people in a symbiotic manner.
- Some other notable projects executed by the project include the construction of Paro Airport, Yonphula Airfield, Thimphu – Trashigang Highway, Telecommunication & Hydro Power Infrastructure, Sherubtse College, Kanglung and India House Estate.
- The medical and education facilities established by DANTAK in far flung areas were often the first in those locations.
2. Single Crystal Blades for helicopter engine application
Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has developed single crystal blades technology and supplied 60 of these blades to Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) as part of their indigenous helicopter development program for helicopter engine application.
- It is part of a program taken up by Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL), a premium laboratory of DRDO.
- OBJECTIVE: To develop five sets (300 in number) of single crystal high pressure turbine (HPT) blades using a nickel-based super alloy.
- Helicopters used in strategic and defence applications need compact and powerful aero-engines for their reliable operation at extreme conditions.
- To achieve this, state-of-the-art Single Crystal Blades having complex shape and geometry, manufactured out of Nickel based superalloys capable of withstanding high temperatures of operation are used.
- Very few countries in the world such as USA, UK, France and Russia have the capability to design and manufacture such Single Crystal (SX) components.
3. LADAKH IGNITED MINDS.
LADAKH IGNITED MINDS: A CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE AND WELLNESS (AN INDIAN ARMY INITIATIVE IN PARTNERSHIP WITH HPCL).
Executing Agency – National Integrity & Educational Development Org (NIEDO)
- The project Ladakh Ignited Minds : A Centre of Excellence and Wellness has been conceptualised to secure a better future for the youth of UT of Ladakh
- It is a full-time residential program to mentor and guide them for a period of twelve months for entrance examinations of various Medical and Engineering Colleges spread across in India.
- The program under the aegis of Indian Army will be executed by Kanpur based NGO, National Integrity & Educational Development Organisation (NIEDO).
- Army would oversee the overall operations to include administration and logistics with requisite funding support through Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL).
- The Kanpur based educational trust named National Integrity and Educational Development Organisation (NIEDO), which has been identified to execute the program will not only mentor and guide the kids and aid their future growth story but will also provide value-based education.
- Right from primary career chosen, soft skill training, critical life competencies, leadership capabilities, personal conditioning, wellness programs, vocational training, personality development, and end to end grooming till they become productive human resource for the Nation.
4. Oxygen enrichment technology
CSIR-CMERI, Durgapur, in association with MSME-DI, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, Government of India jointly organised a Webinar on ‘Oxygen Enrichment’ Technology.
What is the Oxygen Enrichment Unit(OEU)?
- An oxygen enrichment unit is a device that concentrates the oxygen from the surrounding air. For that, it selectively removes nitrogen to supply oxygen-enriched air.
- The concentrated Oxygen is delivered to the patients having respiratory diseases through an oxygen mask or nasal cannula.
- Firstly, the device is useful in remote places, homes, or hospital-like facilities for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), chronic hypoxemia, and pulmonary edema.
- Secondly, it may also be used as an adjunct treatment for severe sleep apnea (in conjunction with a continuous positive airway pressure unit).
About Oxygen Enrichment Unit(OEU) developed by CMERI:
The Oxygen Enrichment Unit(OEU) of CMERI is indigenous.
Principle: The unit works on the principle of pressure swing adsorption (PSA). It utilizes zeolite columns to selectively remove nitrogen from air under certain pressure thereby increasing the oxygen concentration.
Benefits of this Oxygen Enrichment Unit(OEU):
- This unit is capable of delivering up to 30 Litres Per Minute(LPM) Oxygen enriched air, which is absent in the other commercially available units.
- The available Oxygen Enrichment Units generally work till 8000 ft from sea level. However, this unit can work up to the altitude of 14000 ft. Thus, it is very handy for usage in the high-altitude terrain battlefield in contingencies.
- Further, this unit will help in High Flow Oxygen Therapy. This therapy is a better method in the treatment and management of COVID-19 patients.
- High-flow oxygen therapy is a form of respiratory support in the hospital. In this therapy, the oxygen in conjunction with the compressed air and humidification travels at a higher rate of flow compared to normal methods.
CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur is a premier Mechanical Engineering Research Institute of the country under Ministry of Science & Technology, Govt. of India.
CSIR-CMERI has already invited Expression of Interest (EOI) from Indian Companies / Manufacturing agencies/ MSMEs / Start ups for manufacturing Oxygen Enrichment Units through Technology Transfer.
5. India third highest military spender in 2020
India third highest military spender in 2020, states data published by Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.
- Total global military expenditure rose to $1981 billion last year, an increase of 2.6 per cent in real terms from 2019, according to new data published today by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)
- The five biggest spenders in 2020, which together accounted for 62 per cent of global military expenditure, were the United States, China, India, Russia and the United Kingdom. Military spending by China grew for the 26th consecutive year.
- The US spent a total of $778 billion in 2020, China spent $252 billion and India’s military expenditure was $72.9 billion.
- India was the third largest military spender in the world in 2020, behind only the US and China.
- While India’s spending since 2019 grew by 2.1 per cent, the increase for China was more moderate, at 1.9 per cent. The US saw a 4.4 per cent growth over its 2019 expenditure.
- The United States’ military spending was 3.7 per cent of its GDP while the corresponding numbers for China and India were 1.7 per cent and 2.9 per cent respectively.
- SIPRI said that military spending in Asia and Oceania “was 2.5 per cent higher in 2020 than in 2019 and 47 per cent higher than in 2011, continuing an uninterrupted upward trend since at least 1989” and attributed the rise “primarily to increases in spending by China and India, which together accounted for 62 per cent of total military expenditure in the region in 2020”.
- The other top spenders included Russia with $61.7 billion, the UK at $59.2 billion, Saudi Arabia at $57.5 billion, followed by Germany and France at just under $53 billion each.